Dental cyst or periapical cyst develops when a non-treated tooth decay leads to complications by affecting the tissue at the apex of the tooth.
The bacteria which diffuse at this level lead to the development of a membrane, inside of which liquid accumulates. Many times, the existence and development of periapical cyst is not noticed, due to the fact that, at the first signs of pain, patients resort to self-medication with antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs, without seeing a physician.
Thus, the pathological process goes through a progressive development, without obvious clinical occurrences or with light clinical occurrences, frequently ignored by patients.
In other cases, cyst develops after the extraction of the cause-tooth, when a small remain of the infected tissue from the apex of the root is left within the bone and it continues to develop. This type of cyst is known as residual cyst.
Periapical cyst is surgically treated, its removal being performed under local anesthesia, through a procedure known as cystectomy. Through this procedure, the content of the cyst and the cyst membrane are completely removed.
Before turning to cystectomy, the physician will also indicate the corresponding medication treatment and the treatment needed for the roots in direct contact with the cyst or roots located within the proximity of the cyst.
Radiology investigations are utterly needed for establishing the size of the cyst and its effects on the surrounding structures.
Periapical and residual cysts represent an infectious outbreak, which require surgical removal under antibiotic protection and also the hospitalization of the patient, for the purpose of monitoring the healing process of the affected bone structure.
In cases where timely intervention is not performed, bone cysts become larger, distort the outer layer of the bone, can develop superinfections and can lead to repeated abscesses or even to pathological bone fracture.